Assessment of Genetic Relationships in Some Syrian Pistachio Cultivars and Genotypes, Pistacia vera L., Based on ISSR Markers
It was clearly observed that the performance of the commercial pistachio genotypes was confusing within each variety according to the accredited substantial criteria of international descriptors. Therefore, the current work aimed to assess the genetic variation among 10 genotypes and cultivars, including 4 Ashouri, 2 Batouri, Ajami, Beid alhamam, and Ras alkharof across fifteen ISSR primers in Sweida Research Center 2019-2020. All of the used primers were polymorphic, which revealed a total of 148 bands, 141 of them were polymorphic (95.27%). The number of bands ranged from 6 to 15, with an average of 9.87 bands for each locus. Genetic similarity among all studied genotypes and cultivars ranged from 0.31 to 0.73. Depending on the UPGMA algorithm and the Dice equation, the cluster analysis divided the studied material into three main clusters. The first and second clusters comprised the following white genotypes: White Batouri, Batouri cultivar, Grahi, Beid alhamam, and Ras Alkharof that are analogous in many morphological characters, and the third cluster contained all other genotypes and cultivars: Ajami, White Ashouri, Ashouri cultivar, Ashouri Abureha, and Ashouri Mawardi. The current results demonstrated the efficiency of the ISSR technique by revealing the genetic variation among P. vera genotypes and cultivars and separating all of them into standing apart clusters according to their resembling appearance.
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